Vitamin B1 or thiamine is a sulfur-containing vitamin that role in energy metabolism. Thiamine deficiency will affect at least three thiamine-dependent enzymes (transketolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and alfa-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase) crucial in the energy production cycle. It is a white powder which is soluble in water, alcohol, and acetone. The toxicity of this product is uncommon since deleterious effects will occur if hundreds of supplementation are conducted more than the recommended dietary intake. Thiamine or Vitamin B1 is often found in whole-grain cereals, meat, and fish.
The synthesis process of thiamine involves several steps. First step was to react the Pyruvate with Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and Dxs ligand to yield Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate. The second step was to prepare Tyrosine form E.coli bacteria and glycine from B.subtilis bacteria to yield dehydroglycine. The next step was to react Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate with dehydroglycine to yield thiazole phosphate carboxylate tautomer. In the further procedure, this compound was reacted with several specific enzymes to yield the Thiamine pyrophosphate. The final step was a thiamin degradation which finally yield the desired product, thiamine.
Vitamin B1 is widely used for fortification of various food products. Some examples of vitamin B1 fortified food products are flour, bread, cereals, dietetic products, and baby food. It can also be added to beverages due to its powder form and solubility in water.
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