Tartrazine is a bright yellow anionic and hydrophilic powder used as food coloring. It is a synthetic lemmon yellow and yellow azo dye. It can also be used with Brilliant Blue FCF (FD&C Blue 1, E133) or Green S (E142) to produce various green shades. It is famously known by its E number E102.
The dye consists of trisodium 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-1H-pyrazole-3- carboxylate.
Tartrazine is manufactured by making it react with diazotized 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (sulfanilic acid, SA) with 5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-2-pyrazoline-3-carboxylic acid (Pyrazolone T, PyT) or with the methyl ester, the ethyl ester, or a salt of this carboxylic acid. The resulting compound is purified and isolated as sodium salt.
Another method for manufacturing tartrazine is by condensing phenylhydrazine-p-sulfonic acid with dioxosuccinic acid or oxalacetic acid derivatives.
Used in desserts, confectionaries, chips, beverages, snacks, spreads, jams, and other processed foods.
Liquid and bar soaps; lipsticks, lip balms, nail polish; other cosmetic products mainly for the color.
Some medications include tartrazine to give a yellow, orange or green hue to a liquid, capsule, pill, lotion, or gel, primarily for easy identification.
Other products, such as household cleaning products, paper plates, pet foods, crayons, inks for writing instruments, stamp dyes, face paints and envelope glues, may also contain tartrazine.