Dextrose monohydrate is the hydrated form of D isomer of glucose. It is also known as hydrated D-glucose. Dextrose monohydrate is usually derived from plant starches like corn starch and potato starch. Besides its applications in the food and beverage industry and the pharmaceutical industry, it is also the monomer for maltodextrin. As compared to glucose, dextrose monohydrate is metabolized faster by the body thus it is a popular ingredient to be added into intravenous (IV) fluid and oral rehydration salts as it produces energy quickly.
Like its anhydrous counterpart, dextrose monohydrate is commonly synthesised from hydrolysis of corn starch.
2% corn starch is prepared and mixed with pancreatin, an enzyme. It is then brought to boil slowly under reflux. After which, it will be boiled for 20 minutes and the solution will be maintained at 40°C. The amount of enzyme added is high regulated as it ensure optimal rate of hydrolysis of corn starch into dextrose. Refinement and crystallisation are then carried out to obtain dextrose. To obtain dextrose monohydrate, the solution is crystallised at temperature lower than 150°C. Thus the end product - dextrose monohydrate contains 1 water molecule with every dextrose monohydrate molecule.
Dextrose monohydrate is naturally occurring in animals and plants. Thus, it can be synthesised biologically by digestion of starches like potato starch and corn starch.
In the food and beverage industry, dextrose monohydrate is often used as sweeteners in confectionery and baked goods. It is also converted to maltodextrin, a polyol, where it is used as thickening agent and supplement in infant formula milk.
In the pharmaceutical industry, dextrose monohydrate is often used in oral rehydration salts and intravenous (IV) fluid as it can be metabolized quickly and can be utilized by the body as energy source. Maltodextrin, polyol of dextrose monohydrate can be used as stabilizer in medicine as well.